The 36-year-old, who had most recently been playing in the United States with San Diego Legion, has hung up his boots at the age of 36 after repeated shoulder injuries.
Before moving to the USA, Robshaw spent his whole club career in England with Harlequins. He played exactly 300 times for the London club and helped them win their first-ever Premiership title in 2012.
Robshaw earned 66 England caps during his career, leading his country in 43 Tests over a five-and-a-half year period and most notably at the 2015 World Cup.
The flanker has set up his own charity after retiring, the Kerslake Robshaw Foundation, with the aim of supporting disadvantaged young people to find drive and passion through music and sport.
“Following three dislocated shoulders in quick succession my body has told me to blow the final whistle,” Robshaw said in a statement posted to social media on Friday morning.
“No words can do justice to how fortunate and privileged I am to have enjoyed a career in the sport I am most passionate about.
“Playing for and captaining England has been the greatest honour of my life and there is no comparable feeling to representing and leading your country.”